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Japan's guarantee system
2019-08-30 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 更多范文
下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment阿根廷国家队官方赞助商范文- Japan's guarantee system，供大家参考学习，这篇论文讨论了日本的担保体系。20世纪50年代以来，日本的《小企业信用保险法》《信用保证协会法》等中小企业信用担保相关法律相继颁布实施，并在长时间的实践中不断修改完善。这些多角度、多层级、多对象的法律法规和配套制度，规范了日本中小企业信用担保机构法律地位、支撑结构、业务对象和运作规则。
Small and medium-sized enterprises (smes) are an indispensable part of a country's innovation vitality. To vigorously develop smes and enhance the vitality of the private economy is a key part of China's stable and high-quality economic development. Small and medium-sized enterprises generally face the problem of difficult and expensive financing in their development. One of the effective ways to solve these problems is credit guarantee. Japan's credit guarantee system was established early and developed well. It is of positive significance to study its model and learn from its experience to perfect the construction of China's credit guarantee system.
Credit guarantees are called "credit guarantees" in Japan. In 1937, Tokyo, Kyoto and Osaka credit guarantee associations were established successively. In 1958, the credit insurance bank for small and medium-sized enterprises was established under the background of the Japanese government. The credit guarantee system formed by Japan covers two major functions: "credit guarantee" and "credit insurance". The former is to point to, when small and medium-sized enterprise is lending to financial institution, offer certain add letter service and assure safeguard. The latter refers to the reinsurance guarantee of the credit guarantee by the Japanese financial public bank backed by government funds.
There are 52 credit guarantee associations in 47 prefectures and five major cities, and 51 in Japan. The credit guarantee associations operate independently and do not directly engage in loan business. Instead, they serve small and medium-sized enterprises in the region by providing credit guarantee, consulting management and other services to help them obtain commercial loans from financial institutions. The assets of the credit guarantee association consist of basic property and borrowed funds. The former, as a credit guarantee fund, consists of three parts, namely, donation fund, burden fund and fund reserve fund. In charge of the guarantee rate, it is divided into 9 stages, which are determined on the basis of the credit risk database of small and medium-sized enterprises, the settlement statement of small businesses and financial evaluation.
In 1958, the Japanese government established the credit insurance public bank of small enterprises in accordance with the law on credit insurance public bank of small and medium-sized enterprises. The insurance pool is fully funded by the government and does not directly finance small and medium-sized enterprises, but provides reinsurance for the credit guarantee association. In accordance with relevant laws and regulations, when the credit guarantee association guarantees small and medium-sized enterprises, it will automatically obtain the credit guarantee insurance of the small and medium-sized enterprise credit insurance public library and pay a certain insurance premium. The fee is equivalent to about 40 per cent of the guaranteed fee income. After the actual occurrence of compensation, the insurance public Treasury shall pay 70% ~ 80% of the compensation amount to the guarantee association. After the creditor's rights are recovered, the credit guarantee association shall return the corresponding ratio of the creditor's rights to the credit insurance public library.
Since the 1950s, the law on credit insurance of small enterprises, the law on credit guarantee association, the law on financial public Treasury of small and medium-sized enterprises, the basic law of small and medium-sized enterprises and other laws related to credit guarantee of small and medium-sized enterprises have been promulgated and implemented successively, and constantly revised and improved in the long practice. These laws, regulations and supporting systems with multiple perspectives, levels and objects standardize the legal status, supporting structure, business objects and operation rules of smes credit guarantee institutions.
At the national level, the national small and medium-sized enterprise credit guarantee federation and the public bank of Japanese policy finance have been set up. In addition, credit guarantee associations have been set up in prefectures and major cities in dodo, so that credit guarantee agencies have been set up from top to bottom to jointly provide all-round services for small and medium-sized enterprises' financing guarantee.
The basic law of small and medium-sized enterprises in Japan clarifies the standards for small and medium-sized enterprises from the aspects of industry, capital and number of employees. The credit guarantee association of small and medium-sized enterprises only provides credit guarantee for small and medium-sized enterprises. Agriculture, forestry and fishery also set up special agencies to provide credit guarantee. Credit guarantee agencies are set up according to different industries, with a high degree of specialization.
Japanese small and medium-sized enterprise credit guarantee association general guarantee business according to the proportion of lo risk with the bank, 80% of the risk part to attend insurance of Japan's policy financial public library again, again in accordance with the "proportion and the Japanese policy financial public library to share the risk, namely Japan's small and medium-sized enterprise credit guarantee association general guarantee business risk was 16%, 50% of the guarantee to the Japanese policy financial public library as the insurance premium.
Small and medium-sized enterprises in Japan have a long operation period and a good credit environment. The authenticity of credit data submitted to Banks and credit guarantee associations is relatively high, which reduces the difficulty of credit review for Banks and credit guarantee associations to some extent. During my study in the guarantee industry in Japan, the author learned that the recovery of small and medium-sized enterprises by the Japan credit guarantee association was basically through agreement. Even after the bankruptcy of small and medium-sized enterprises, business owners still paid back the guaranteed loans by working and other means in installments, and only about 10% of the business was recovered through court proceedings.
Released in China on the opinion "to promote the development of financing guarantee industry to speed up the regulations on the supervision and administration of financing guarantee company and its four supporting system, on the effective play a role of governmental financing guarantee fund to support the development of the small micro enterprise and the" three rural "guidance", from the government's function, system construction, supervision, management and policy support of financing guarantee industry development plan and requirements, but still need more guidance from solid operating level, by establishing and perfecting the effective system mechanism, the design idea and policy together, make the small and medium-sized enterprise credit guarantee in policy and law to be able to more effective support and protection.
At present, the state-established financing guarantee fund mainly takes the re-guarantee business of risk sharing as the main body and mainly targets the qualified provincial re-guarantee institutions. In some guarantee agencies at the provincial level, for example, the national guarantee fund for the credit line 1, 00 billion yuan, in terms of guarantee business cooperation again, national financing guarantee fund in accordance with the original 20% of total amount of the financing guarantee business, share the liability for guaranteeing the again, the proportion of share is low, there was a risk guarantee agencies still have to bear the main risk, failed to give full play to the role of the insurance. The national guarantee fund lacks experience in the design, demonstration and construction of the national guarantee system. Communication with supervision departments, coordination of relations between all parties, formulation of business and fee standards, operation mode, performance compensation and other aspects also need to be further strengthened.
"About effective play a role of governmental financing guarantee fund to support the development of the small micro enterprise and the" three rural "guidance" clear government financing guarantee institutions shall adhere to quasi-public positioning, make up for a lack of market, for the lack of information, lack of credit of small enterprises and "three agriculture" the main body to provide credit, governmental financing guarantee agencies strict control the idle fund operation scale and risk, the compression of large and medium-sized enterprise guarantee business, gradually to increase the guarantee business accounts for a small support agriculture than to more than 80%, the key support single-family guarantee amount is 5 million yuan of the following small micro enterprise and the "three agriculture" the main body. In addition, the cooperative Banks are unwilling to take risks due to the lack of business products guaranteed by guarantee institutions for small and medium-sized enterprises, the inconsistent annual rate standard, and the unclear guarantee proportion system. As a result, China's guarantee institutions take too many risks.
By referring to the model and experience of Japan, this paper formulates a sound guarantee system, constructs the basic framework of the legal system system of credit guarantee for small and medium-sized enterprises, and promotes the development of credit guarantee industry. In terms of compensation mechanism, the government can use a certain proportion of fiscal revenue or tax incentives and exemptions for guarantee institutions to supplement guarantee funds; In terms of risk sharing, the form of guarantee responsibility, sharing proportion, compensation conditions and other contents should be clarified between guarantee institutions and cooperative Banks, so as to jointly bear the financing risks of smes.
According to the actual development of the regional industry, the establishment of policy-based guarantee institutions at the provincial, municipal and county levels can try to give full play to the collaborative advantages of guarantee industry institutions and take the lead in business access, rate standard, risk control, supervision and management. Collect the business systems and processes of various guarantee institutions, refine, summarize and formulate unified business access standards, business systems, operation processes and risk management structures that are in line with the actual conditions of all parties.
Specific provisions should be made for small and medium-sized enterprises that can obtain guarantees, such as enterprises that comply with national industrial policies, have good tax situation, high credit degree, good operating conditions and good development prospects. In terms of risk control, establish internal control mechanism, implement hierarchical responsibility system, ensure credit investigation and guarantee review when applying, strengthen project tracking management, and strengthen risk management from the source and in the process.
According to its own situation, Japan has set up special types of guarantee services such as natural disasters, entrepreneurship and regeneration support for smes with high risks. Based on this, China can research and develop credit and loan products according to different development stages and economic cycles of enterprises, give preferential rates and increase the guarantee period. Guarantee institutions can innovate exclusive guarantee products and services, increase guarantee period, moderately relax guarantee scale and reasonably determine the rate level for smes with good development prospects and high expected rate of return, so as to enable enterprises to obtain long-term stable development funds.