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Point axis group theory
2019-08-28 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 更多范文
下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment阿根廷国家队官方赞助商范文- Point axis group theory，供大家参考学习，这篇论文讨论了点轴群理论。点轴群理论是以发展极理论和点轴理论为基础，在极点开发、点轴开发的基础上形成的点轴群城市建设的理论。城市群的发展模式已经得到美国、日本发展的证实。点轴群理论认为，生产力的空间布局呈现点—点轴—点轴群的发展特点，生产力的发展呈现点—点轴—点轴群的发展规律，即生产力的空间布局和经济发展首先呈现“点”的发展状态，然后呈现点、点轴的发展状态，最后呈现点、点轴、点轴群的综合发展状态。
The theory of point axis group is based on the development pole theory of the famous French economist pelu and the point axis theory of the famous Chinese geographer lu da. The development model of urban agglomeration has been confirmed by the development of the United States and Japan.
The point axis group theory puts forward a new form of the spatial layout of "group" productivity. Point axis group theory, productivity spatial layout of points, point axis, axis of development characteristics, the development of productive forces present points - point axis - axis group, the law of the development of the productive forces of spatial layout and economic development, first of all, show the development of the "dot" state, and then present point, point axis development status, the last point, point, point axis group of comprehensive development of the state.
The point axis group theory of point axis group face four integration, common development, mutual promotion. In point - axis - group - plane, point - axis group is three kinds of growth poles with different spatial distribution of productivity. Among the three growth poles of point-axis group, because of the agglomeration effect and the radiation effect, "group" tends to become the main growth pole and the main development force. "Clusters" tend to grow at a faster rate and have greater development potential, and tend to become "engines" for growth and development of a country or region or even the whole world. The huge population scale, developed social and economic development level, unique "hub function" and innovative "incubator" function in the process of social and economic development represent the way of human society to make the most intensive use of natural resources so far, indicating the development direction of the world in the future.
According to the model of point-axis group plane, China's land area of 9.6 million square kilometers constitutes a plane. "Axis" is mainly coastal zone, along the river zone, along the railway highway zone; "Point" is mainly the cluster of regions, and is the central town or even village that drives the region. The transportation network and information network formed between the point axis groups and each other, and between the point axis groups and the plane, promotes the aggregation and radiation of the point axis groups. The point axis group plane constitutes a complete development pattern. China should scientifically handle the coordinated development of point-axis groups according to the objective law of the distribution of productive forces, give full play to the role of point-axis groups, especially "groups" as poles of growth, and promote the sustainable development of China's economy and society.
China is a country with relatively low water resources per capita in the world, with a per capita water resource of 2,200 cubic meters. In the process of urbanization, large cities centered on Beijing and Shanghai have been formed with the population above 20 million, and the expansion of population scale has increased urban water consumption. Beijing, for example, has only 161.60 cubic metres of water per person, 7% of the national average. More than 110 of the country's 660 cities are suffering from severe water shortages. The overbuilt population size of big cities undoubtedly increases the burden of urban water. At the same time, many large cities in China are located in the inland, where there is a lack of rain, groundwater resources are scarce, water supply capacity is weak, and the population is relatively concentrated.
Adequate urban power supply is an important manifestation of the improvement of people's material quality of life. Over the past 40 years of reform and opening up, China has been deepening its industrialization and urbanization process. The living standards of the Chinese people have been constantly improved and innovations in science and technology have been made. On the one hand, the variety and quantity of household appliances are increasing. In 2000, for every 100 households of durable consumer goods in urban China, the main household appliances included color TV sets, refrigerators, electric fans and washing machines. In 2016, in addition to color TV sets, refrigerators and washing machines, more household appliances such as water heaters, air conditioners and microwave ovens were added to the average of 100 durable consumer goods in urban households. In 2000, urban residents used 145.2 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity, but increased to 756.5 billion kilowatt-hours in 2015, an increase of 5.27 times. On the other hand, with the continuous expansion of urban industrial agglomeration effect and the increase of production and living service industries, urban electricity consumption has accounted for more than 90% of the power supply, and the burden of power supply is getting heavier and heavier.
With the deepening of industrialization and urbanization, the contradiction between urban and rural dual structure has become increasingly obvious. Surplus rural labor force has been transferred to urban secondary and tertiary industries, and the urban population has been expanding. China's urbanization rate increased from 36.22 percent in 2000 to 58.52 percent in 2017, and the urban population now accounts for 57.35 percent of the total population. In 2016, China's urban population density exceeded 1,000 people per square kilometer. Shenzhen is the most densely populated city in China, with a population density of 5,963 people per square kilometer. Too large urban population density not only increases the investment in urban infrastructure construction, but also brings greater pressure to the public service industry, resulting in the public service supply is far less than the urban population development demand, and the urban population density is too large, aggravating air pollution.
Urban traffic congestion is mainly based on the following two factors: one is the contradiction between urban road construction and urbanization development. With the acceleration of urbanization, the number of urban population increases greatly. In particular, with the continuous improvement of urban residents' living standards, the number of private cars continues to increase, which contradicts with the fact that urban planning and road construction cannot meet the needs of urbanization development, resulting in serious urban road congestion. Another factor is that industrialization is a prerequisite for urbanization. The continuous deepening of the industrialization process gives rise to a large number of industrial products. As the product of industrialization, the number of automobiles continues to increase. In 2016, China's automobile production and sales exceeded 28 million, ranking first in the world. Compared with 2015, the number of private cars increased by 22.08 million, or 15.08 percent, with an average of 36 private cars per 100 households. The increase of private cars will inevitably lead to the shortage of urban road supply, which will lead to urban traffic congestion.
With the increasing of urban population, the quality of urban ecological environment is deteriorating. Air pollution, water pollution and noise pollution are the main aspects of urban ecological environment pollution. Air pollution has become a common environmental problem in large and medium-sized cities in China in recent years. Due to the concentration of urban population, industrial concentration, energy consumption and other reasons, the concentration of inhalable particulate matter in urban air continues to increase. The cities with serious haze are mainly concentrated in the northern areas, especially in winter, the haze phenomenon is more serious. According to the environmental air quality standards, only 114 of China's 385 cities meet the standards, accounting for 29.6 percent of the country's total. It can be seen that urban ecological environment pollution is the inevitable result of urban scale expansion.
The core idea of the point-axis group theory is to radiate the development of surrounding small and medium-sized cities through the construction of large cities, and then connect the economic development points into the development axis to drive the economic development axis to link the economic development of cities, so as to effectively curb and alleviate the "big city disease" caused by excessive urban construction scale.
The solutions to solve the "big city disease" in countries around the world are mainly to build new cities in selected places, among which the successful ones are Canberra in Australia and Brasilia in Brazil. It is an effective means to respect the law of urban construction and solve the problem of "big city disease".
Urban development, especially the development and construction of megalopolis, megalopolis and large cities, cannot continue to spread the cake. On the one hand, the urban development mode of "spreading the pie" makes cities blindly pursue "scale expansion" while ignoring the resource and environmental problems brought by urban expansion. On the other hand, the urban development model of "spreading the pie" ignores the overall benefits of economic and social development, resulting in insufficient supply of public goods. For example, in terms of road traffic, breaking the ring pattern needs to rely on multiple scattering outlets and establish a three-dimensional crossover system in all directions, which not only consumes a large amount of urban land, but also damages the protection and development of the city's cultural, natural landscape and cultural relics. Therefore, urban construction needs to scientifically formulate the scale of urban development based on geographical location, ecological environment, capacity of urban infrastructure construction and other objective factors, so as to avoid the construction scale of the core area exceeding the maximum capacity of the city.
Urban construction plays a radiating role in the economic and social development of surrounding areas. Through the formation of urban construction "point", linkage of economic exchanges between big cities and small and medium-sized cities, forming the long axis of urban development. In April 2017, the xiongan new area in hebei province was approved to be established, which has become the core of the economic development of the beijing-tianjin-hebei region. Through the construction of xiongan new zone, new development "axes" such as Beijing -- xiongan -- tianjin -- baoding -- shijiazhuang -- cangzhou -- hengshui -- zhangjiakou -- langfang -- xingtai will be formed. The set up of the male AnXin area, not only can effectively reduce the pressure on Beijing's too densely populated cities, reduce energy consumption in Beijing, is beneficial to alleviate the pollution of the environment of Beijing city, and with the rise of male AnXin area, improve surrounding baoding, shijiazhuang, cangzhou, such as urban development and construction, form the linkage mechanism of economic development.
Urban agglomeration is based on the "point" and "axis" of urban construction. It drives the construction of small and medium-sized cities through the development of large cities, and then forms urban development group, and finally realizes urbanization. China's urban construction is more about cultivating the development "points" of megacities, and attaches importance to giving full play to the radiation "axis" of megacities to the development of surrounding small and medium-sized cities. However, there is still a big gap in the cultivation of urban development group. Urban development group refers to the economic development of the whole region by means of industrial transfer, technological diffusion, flow of production factors and other economic measures in a specific region, combined with the specific development advantages of each urban "point" within the region due to the common geographical characteristics. Therefore, the final result of urban construction is to form development "groups", which complement each other's advantages and alleviate various economic, social and environmental problems caused by the expansion of population in big cities. At the same time, through rational and effective use of the spillover effect of industrial advantages, technological advantages and capital advantages of big cities, accelerate the construction and development of small and medium-sized cities, expand the geographical space for urban development, and integrate urban development resources.
Urban and rural integration is an important measure to relieve the construction and development pressure of big cities. Xi jinping, general secretary of the proceeding from China's specific national conditions, promote the urban and rural integration development, industry and agriculture, urban and rural overall planning, comprehensive set up and carry out the innovation, harmonious and green, open, sharing "five one" the concept of development, promote the new rural construction and new urbanization mutual integration, form a two-wheel drive. Through the construction of urbanization around big cities and the construction of the most beautiful countryside, we should establish sound infrastructure, create a livable ecological environment, divert the population of big cities to the surrounding areas, and relieve the population pressure in urban centers.
According to the point axis group theory, the construction and development of large cities is the engine to drive the economic development of contiguous areas. Through the construction of "points" in big cities, the construction of multiple "points" in the region will be formed, and then the "axis" of urban economic development will be formed, linking with the economic development of nearby areas, and finally forming the "group" of economic development and realizing group development. Scientific planning is the basis of promoting the overall healthy and sustainable development of urbanization. It is in the new urbanization development, insist on planning first, innovation planning ideas, perfecting the urban and rural planning system, strengthen the planning and comprehensive guide to the development of urbanization, promote the town shape optimization layout, optimal allocation of resources, the strong support of industrial development, infrastructure construction and intensive, mechanism of formation of urban and rural planning guide, guide the scientific development of urbanization. Second, in the process of advancing the new type of urbanization, we need to break the pattern of "each region and industry planning for its own", promote the reform of the planning system, and make the planning more comprehensive, systematic and scientific.
Practices prove that both at home and abroad, and as the main form of urbanization, urban agglomerations is characterized by metropolis circle of urban development strategy, through the urban structure development depended, clear function orientation of the cities in urban agglomeration, metropolitan circle, formed complementary advantages, rational division of labor and efficient operation of urban labor division system, is a kind of good urbanization development model.
Under the guidance of xi jinping thought of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era, the new urbanization path must combine the bearing capacity of resources and environment to construct a scientific and reasonable macro layout of urbanization, take city clusters as the main body, and promote the complementary and coordinated development of large, medium and small cities. The city is not an isolated and closed system. From a large area, large area, many of the small and medium-sized cities would form a Shared network of urban agglomeration, all cities can be Shared within the urban agglomeration of positive externalities, through innovation of "is" between the two cities of spillover effects, to offset the environmental pollution and so on "negative" spillover effect, give full play to the synergistic effect of urban industrial clusters, to achieve resource sharing, complementary advantages, dislocation development, eventually become the "city" development strategy, promoting the comprehensive carrying capacity of each city, realize the healthy and sustainable development of the city.