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怎样写好批判性分析论文

2019-08-30 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 写作技巧

在国外大学,批判性分析论文是众多论文作业中难度偏大的一种,这是因为涉及到了批判性思维。对于大部分留学生而言,在出国留学之前都没有接受过批判性思维的教育,所以一下很难写好批判性分析论文。那么怎样写好批判性分析论文呢?下面就给大家讲解一下

怎样写批判性分析论文,批判性分析论文,assignment阿根廷国家队官方赞助商,阿根廷国家队官方赞助商,美国作业阿根廷国家队官方赞助商

如何让您的批判性分析论文从平平无奇到令人敬畏呢?

一篇批判性分析论文需要分解文章的各个不同组织部分,以便解释作者的论点或主要观点。但只是解释不同的组成部分以及它们与论点或主要观点的关系将会让论文读起来非常无聊。

好的批判性分析论文会关注三要素——effectiveness(有效性),organization(组织性)和appeal(吸引力)。

Effectiveness(有效性)

我不能夸大保持论点有效的重要性。我将在稍后讨论如何发展论点,但是您一旦确定了论点,就要确保论文剩余的部分是用于证明您的论点的。

我从Katniss那里吸取的教训——成功和真正的伟大不能三心二意,而是要坚定目标。

在她的案例中,Panem人民摆脱了暴政。对您来说,就是要写出一篇好的批判性分析论文。相较于她的目标,写作似乎并不令人生畏对吧?

Organization(组织性)

组织性是确保您的写作逻辑合理流畅。保证您的论文组织性好的最好方法之一就是写一个outline(大纲)。这样,您可以在写的偏题太远之前计划好一切,这样也能避免忘记重要的部分。

Appeal(吸引力)

我称之为“非无聊因素”,其他人可能称之为创造力。在这种情况下,我并不是在谈论成为下一个莎士比亚,我的意思是要让读者参与进来。

只将必要的信息展示出来并不会创造愉快的阅读体验。当您在撰写和阅读您的批判性分析论文的时候,要把自己放在读者的位置,并判断是否需要更多展示个性的东西。

以下是写一篇好的批判性分析论文的步骤:

现在您已经了解一些在批判性分析论文中应该包含哪些内容,下一步让我们来展示一些真实的例子。在您批判性的阅读文本之后,写作过程只剩下四个步骤。

1.写好论点

2.撰写大纲

3.写论文内容

4.修改润色

每一个步骤都需要更多的解释对吗?好,那接下来我就来展示这些步骤。在接下来的例子中,我将分析作者Suzanne Collins在The Hunger Games(饥饿游戏)系列中的主要观点并回答她是否成功地将主要观点贯穿其中。

步骤#1:写好论点

论点会告诉读者您的批判性分析论文是关于什么的。想想您的论文想要完成什么内容,并说明清楚。

因为这是一篇批判性的分析论文,因此涵盖了相当广泛的主题范围。所以一个相当冗长的论点是可以的。

对于我的论点,我可能会写这样的东西:

In The Hunger Games series, author Suzanne Collins effectively demonstrates the dangers of modern issues of war, inequality, and violence. She uses President Snow and The Capitol as gross exaggerations of the worst habits in US society: vanity, greed, conformity, and lack of empathy. By contrasting these exaggerations against the main character, Katniss, Collins successfully gets readers to understand and even sympathize with her main idea.

步骤#2:撰写大纲

就像接管国会大厦一样,写一篇批判性分析论文需要您制定一个计划。

大纲似乎是不必要的工作。 但实际上,它会使您的工作变得更加容易。 您可以事先组织好所有的想法,这样可以使写作过程更快。

一篇批判性分析论文有几个组成部分,所有这些都应该以某种方式在您的大纲中反映出来:

*关于这本书,论文或诗歌的背景信息

*您的论点

*这篇文章的摘要

*分析

根据您的写作风格,您的大纲可以像您希望的那样完整或者简约,只要它能让您了解您的批判性分析论文的细分。

我的大纲可能是这样的:

1. Introduction

1. Background information

1. The Hunger Games series by Suzanne Collins, 2008-2010

2. Thesis statement

2. Summary of the story

3. Collins’s purpose

1. Showing the dangers of war, inequality, and violence

1. War = catalyst for the Hunger Games to be created in the first place.

2. Inequality between The Capitol and the rest of Panem creates tension and eventually revolts.

3. All of Panem is violent, not just the Hunger Games. Creates unjust sense of power for ones committing the violent acts, (rightful) mistrust of government by the victims, and results in death of many.

4. Organization and Style

1. Three-part series showing Katniss’s life during and after the Hunger Games. Told in first person and portrays rise to her role as the Mockingjay.

5. Effectiveness

1. Through a thoughtful portrayal of the stark differences between the Capitol and the rest of Panem, and how apathetic Capitol residents can be about the suffering of others, as well as the pure evil characterized in President Snow, Collins is highly effective in making readers understand her main idea.

6. Audience

1. Teenagers and young adults, but can be enjoyed by older adults as well.

7. Conclusion

1. Throughout The Hunger Games series, Suzanne Collins is able to effectively show her readers what can happen to the world if war, inequality, and violence continue.

您的论文大纲可能与我的相似。如果您正在分析非小说作品,您也可以包含其他元素。无论您写的是什么样的文章,您的文章都必须包括介绍(introduction),正文(body paragraphs)和结论(conclusion)。

步骤#3:写论文内容

既然您有了大纲,那么您就有了一个基本的写作计划。 剩下的就是填写所有重要细节。

因为每篇文献都不同,所以没有两个分析会是完全相同的。但是,几乎所有批判性分析论文中都应包含一些因素:

*作者的论点或主要观点

*论文的组织、风格和有效性,以保持与论点或主要观点一致

*该作品如何吸引某些受众

但是,不同类型的文章确需要其他类型文章的细节。 例如,非小说作品可以分析作者的偏见,作者可能没有考虑的观点,以及作者是否是依赖假设或意见而不是事实。

以下是一些关于非小说作品的批判性分析的例子:

EXAMPLE 1:

A Critical Analysis of The Cherry Orchard by Anton Chekhov

In the article “Dangerous Minds,” author John Pekkanen uses Authority, Emotion, and Fact in a non-biased manner to discuss the topic of medical treatment of severely mentally ill individuals.

Pekkanen’s authority in this piece is clearly identifiable to the reader. He is good faith reporter; he states no views at any point in the article. He remains outside; aloof if you will, of the article at all times. There are no uses of the words I, us, them, etc., indicating that he has a particular stand on the issue. He has researched for this piece very carefully, taking relevant news and surveys from the last couple of years and piecing them together in an informative manner.

The author’s use of emotion in the article is evident within the first five words of the article. From these words the reader can tell that they are about to be told a story, five stories to be exact. The first story is the murder of Kevin Shifflett. Gregory D. Murphy, Kevin’s assailant, grabbed him from behind and slashed at the boy with a knife. He then hit the child’s great-grandmother with the end of the knife and stabbed a fifty-one year old woman that tried to help. Kevin, who had been stabbed eighteen times, died at the scene (Pekkanen 135). The second story is of Russell Watson. Who fantasized he worked for the CIA, and was being hunted by snipers and the Navy SEALS. He was under the impression that the government was sending him messages through the fillings in his teeth….

EXAMPLE 2:

A Critical Analysis of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein

In the novel Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley, we find a unique tale of a science experiment gone wrong, however there is much more to the story than meets the eye. Shelley uses this story to expose fundamental issues with social construction. She also uses the story to highlight the consequences of a man’s struggle to maintain control over a fear of a natural feminine “cultural power”. Anne Mellor, author of the article “Possessing Nature: The Female in Frankenstein”, simply states that Frankenstein “portrays the consequences of social construction of gender that values the male above female.”(274) Mellor digs much deeper when she puts this fundamental issue of gender inequality into context of Frankenstein. She explains how Victor Frankenstein has virtually eliminated the necessity to have females at all, he is able to do this because of the power in which Mary Shelley has given him the novel. The author of the article simply puts it as so, “By stealing the female’s control over reproduction, Frankenstein has eliminated the female’s primary biological function and source of cultural power. Indeed, for the simple purpose of human survival, Frankenstein has eliminated the necessity to have females at all.”(274), which very deliberately supports Anne Mellor’s claim that “Frankenstein’s scientific project – to become the sole creator of a human being – supports a patriarchal denial of the value of women and of female sexuality” (274). Upon analyzing Shelley’s Frankenstein we, as readers, extract a tale of power and control. While in Mellor’s article, Frankenstein becomes a portrayal of the consequences…

EXAMPLE 3:

A Critical Analysis of Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s “The Yellow Wallpaper”

Charlotte Perkins Gilman?the Yellow Wallpaper is a detailed account of the author battle with depression and mental illness. Gilman state of mental illness and delusion is portrayed in this narrative essay. Through her account of this debilitating illness, the reader is able to relate her behavior and thoughts to that of an insane patient in an asylum. She exhibits the same type of thought processes and behaviors that are characteristic of this kind of person. In addition, she is constantly treated by those surrounding her as if she were actually in some form of mental hospital.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman state of depression began after she gave birth to her one and only daughter. She was diagnosed and given a prescription of ?rest? in order to cure her disease (Kennedy 469). Gilman was taken away to a secluded home by her husband in order to obtain such?rest. However, as it becomes evident to the reader, this?rest? actually plays a role in furthering Gilman mental state. The reader watches as Gilman condition worsens as a result of this treatment. It is through her writing and documenting that the reader is able to relate her to a mentally insane being (Kennedy 469).

As is evident to the reader, Gilman is suffering from some sort of mental disorder and/or illness. As is defined by one doctor, disease of the mind is ?any medically recognized disorder that may render a defendant incapable of understanding the nature and quality of his or her actions or knowing that those actions were wrong?(Rogers 221)…

对于小说来说,大部分内容都不是事实(这就是所谓的虚构)。所以您的分析可能包括作者用来实现主要观点的文学手法,来讨论角色或情节的重要性。

以下是一些关于小说作品的批判性分析的例子:

EXAMPLE 1:

A Critical Analysis of The Cherry Orchard by Anton Chekhov

The Cherry Orchard by Anton Chekhov is about a Russian family that is unable to prevent its beloved estate from being sold in an auction due to financial problems. The play has been dubbed a tragedy by many of its latter producers. However, Chekhov labeled his play a farce, or more of a comedy. Although this play has a very tragic backdrop of Russia’s casualty-ridden involvement in both World Wars and the Communist Revolution, the characters and their situations suggest a light-hearted tone, even though they struggle against the upcoming loss of the orchard. Apathy and passivity plague the characters and contribute often to the comic side of things. Sometimes, however, the passivity erupts the tragic flaws of the characters as they fail to save the estate. Another theme of The Cherry Orchard is the thin line between reality and outer appearance between which the characters cannot distinguish. Although indirect, this confusion provides the play yet again with comedy. On the contrary, the confusion is also seen as another tragic flaw…

EXAMPLE 2:

A Critical Analysis of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein

In the novel Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley, we find a unique tale of a science experiment gone wrong, however there is much more to the story than meets the eye. Shelley uses this story to expose fundamental issues with social construction. She also uses the story to highlight the consequences of a man’s struggle to maintain control over a fear of a natural feminine “cultural power”. Anne Mellor, author of the article “Possessing Nature: The Female in Frankenstein”, simply states that Frankenstein “portrays the consequences of social construction of gender that values the male above female.”(274) Mellor digs much deeper when she puts this fundamental issue of gender inequality into context of Frankenstein. She explains how Victor Frankenstein has virtually eliminated the necessity to have females at all, he is able to do this because of the power in which Mary Shelley has given him the novel. The author of the article simply puts it as so, “By stealing the female’s control over reproduction, Frankenstein has eliminated the female’s primary biological function and source of cultural power. Indeed, for the simple purpose of human survival, Frankenstein has eliminated the necessity to have females at all.”(274), which very deliberately supports Anne Mellor’s claim that “Frankenstein’s scientific project – to become the sole creator of a human being – supports a patriarchal denial of the value of women and of female sexuality” (274). Upon analyzing Shelley’s Frankenstein we, as readers, extract a tale of power and control. While in Mellor’s article, Frankenstein becomes a portrayal of the consequences…

EXAMPLE 3:

A Critical Analysis of Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s “The Yellow Wallpaper”

Charlotte Perkins Gilman the Yellow Wallpaper is a detailed account of the author battle with depression and mental illness. Gilman state of mental illness and delusion is portrayed in this narrative essay. Through her account of this debilitating illness, the reader is able to relate her behavior and thoughts to that of an insane patient in an asylum. She exhibits the same type of thought processes and behaviors that are characteristic of this kind of person. In addition, she is constantly treated by those surrounding her as if she were actually in some form of mental hospital.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman state of depression began after she gave birth to her one and only daughter. She was diagnosed and given a prescription of ?rest? in order to cure her disease (Kennedy 469). Gilman was taken away to a secluded home by her husband in order to obtain such rest. However, as it becomes evident to the reader, this rest? actually plays a role in furthering Gilman mental state. The reader watches as Gilman condition worsens as a result of this treatment. It is through her writing and documenting that the reader is able to relate her to a mentally insane being (Kennedy 469).

As is evident to the reader, Gilman is suffering from some sort of mental disorder and/or illness. As is defined by one doctor, disease of the mind is ?any medically recognized disorder that may render a defendant incapable of understanding the nature and quality of his or her actions or knowing that those actions were wrong?(Rogers 221).

接下来让我们回到我的关于The Hunger Games(饥饿游戏)的事例文章。

由于批判性分析论文的性质,没有两个正文段落看起来是一样的。但是,我论文的effectiveness(有效性)部分可能看起来像这样:

While most of the people in Panem struggle and starve, the people of The Capitol live in the lap of luxury. Children of the Districts live in fear that they will be chosen for the next Hunger Games, while children in The Capitol view the Games as entertainment. They live in two different worlds, and it’s these differences that emphasize the apathy of Capitol residents toward the suffering of others. Because President Snow is the man in charge of the Hunger Games, as well as the one responsible for the suffering throughout the Districts on a daily basis, he represents the epitome of evil. Through these differences, Collins successfully allows her readers to see how the evil of the few in power and the apathy of the many can contribute to war and violence.

以上就是关于批判性分析论文的写作讲解,希望同学们都能通过这几个范例,来学会批判性分析。

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